The Viscum album is a semi parasitic plant that has been used for centuries to treat numerous human diseases. It is often used in Germany, where a variety of different extracts are produced in the form of injectables.
The Viscum album is one of the most widely studied complementary therapies for cancer. In some European countries, preparations made from Viscum album are among the most prescribed drugs for patients with this type of pathology.
The album Viscum has a potential anticancer effect, extracts derived from Viscum have been shown to kill cancer cells in vitro [ 1-10 ] by negatively regulating the central genes involved in tumor progression, malignancy, migration and cell invasion such as TGF-β and matrix metalloproteinases [ 11 , 12 ].
Viscum extracts have enhanced lysis (death) of tumor cells mediated by Natural killer (NK) cells, reduce the migratory and invasive potential of tumor cells and stimulate immune system cells both in vitro and in vivo [ 10 – 31].
Three components of Viscum: viscotoxins, polysaccharides and lectins, may be responsible for these effects [ 10 , 13 – 15 , 19 , 21 , 23 – 25 , 32 – 39 ].
Viscotoxins are small proteins that exhibit cell-killing activity and possible immune system stimulating activity [ 1 , 6 , 20 , 21 , 40 , 41 ].
Lectins are complex molecules made of proteins and carbohydrates that are able to bind to the outside of cells (e.g., immune system cells) and induce biochemical changes in them [ 10 , 42 – 45 ].
In view of the visco’s ability to stimulate the immune system, it was classified as a type of biological response modifier [ 42 ]. Biological response modifiers constitute a diverse group of biological molecules that have been used individually, or in combination with other agents, to treat cancer or to lessen the side effects of anticancer drugs. Viscum extracts have been demonstrated in preclinical environments to have other mechanisms of action, such as antiangiogenesis [ 29 ].
Preparations from Viscum extracts are most often used in the treatment of cancer patients in German-speaking countries [ 46 ].
Commercially available extracts are marketed under a variety of brands including Iscador, Eurixor, Helixor, Isorel, Iscucina, planosol and abnobaVISCUM. Some extracts are marketed under more than one name. Iscador, Isorel and Planosol are also sold as Iscar, Vysorel and Lektinol, respectively. All these products are prepared from the Album Viscum (Loranthaceae – Viscum album L. or European Viscum).
In addition to the European Viscum, extracts of a type of Korean mistletoe ( Viscum album var. Coloratum [Kom.] Ohwi) demonstrated cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo in laboratory studies. [ 47 – 51 ].
Viscum grows on various types of trees, and the chemical composition of extracts derived from it depends on the species of the host tree (e.g., apple, elm, oak, pine, poplar and fir), the time of year harvested, as the extracts are prepared, and the commercial producer. [ 8 , 43 , 52 – 55 ].
Viscum extracts are prepared as aqueous solutions or water and alcohol solutions, and can be fermented or unfermented [ 4 , 6 , 22 , 52 , 53 , 56 – 59 ]. Some extracts are prepared according to homeopathic principles, and others are not. Thus, like homeopathic preparations, they are usually not chemically standardized extracts [ 10 , 60 ]. In addition, commercial products can be subdivided according to the host tree species, which is typically indicated in the product name by a suffix letter. Iscador, a fermented aqueous extract from Viscum album L. that is prepared as a homeopathic drug, is marketed as IscadorM (from apple trees; Malus domestica ), IscadorP (of pine trees; Pinus sylvestris ), IscadorQu (oak; Quercus robur ) and IscadorU (elm; Ulmus minor). Helixor, an unfermented aqueous extract of Viscum album L. that is standardized for its biological effect on human leukemia cells in vitro,is marketed as HelixorA (from fir trees: Picea abies), HelixorM (from apple trees) and HelixorP (pine) [ 57]. Eurixor (which is no longer available on the market for sale), an unfermented aqueous extract from viscum album L., harvested from alamos, is standardized to contain a specific amount of one of the Viscum lectins. (lectin ML-1) [ 57 ]. Some proponents claim that the choice of extract should depend on the type of tumor and the sex of the patient [ 55 , 57 61 and 62 ].
Viscum extracts are generally given by subcutaneous injection, although administration by other routes (e.g., oral, intrapleural, intratumoral and intravenous) has been described [ 19 , 22 – 26 , 39 , 43 , 55 , 57 , 60 , 64 – 70 ]. In most of the reported studies, subcutaneous injections were administered 2 to 3 times a week, but the total duration of treatment varied considerably.
Viscum album and leukemias
It has been demonstrated for the first time that solubilized triterpenes or lectins and their combinations induce dose apoptosis and dependent time on the ALL NALM-6 cell line. Based on in vivo data, the authors concluded that triterpenes containing extracts from Viscum album L. may have an impressive therapeutic potential :
In addition, it has been investigated whether extracts containing triterpenes may also induce dose-dependent apoptosis in primary cells of patients with ex vivo infantile leukemia. Here, we also observed the induction of apoptosis, via the caspase-8 and -9 signaling pathways, for viscum, TT and viscumTT.
Mice with leukemia were treated with extracts of Viscum album L. Receptors that received PBS had an average survival time of 38 days, while viscumTprolonged the average survival to 50.5 days. Together, the authors showed that this new formulation “viscumTT” of aqueous extracts of Viscum and triterpenic acids can induce apoptosis in intrinsic ally and extrinsic leukemia cells. In addition, a synergistic effect was revealed for the viscumTT combination compared to single-fraction viscum and TT. Based on these data, the authors believe that the extracts of Viscum album L. have excellent anticancer potential :
Combined treatment of leukemia cells led to an inhibiting synergism in sub apoptotic concentrations of doxorubicin and multiform reduction of cytotoxic effects in healthy control cells. Co-treatment with prolonged Viscum album was associated with reduced G2/M accumulation and increased expression of early and late apoptotic markers. The authors concluded that Viscum album increases the antileamica efficacy of doxorubicin against k562 resistant cells by preventing G2/M arrest and inducing apoptosis :
In Germany, 58.4% of cancer patients use complementary therapies, of which 61.6% use Viscum album – according to a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in several hospitals (Weis et al., 1998). In this country, Helixor is the third most prescribed cytostatic drug on an outpatient basis (Schwabe & Paffrath, 2007).
Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (N=30) had prolonged median survival by the addition of Helixor to Bussulfan (55.7 months versus 30 months of the historical control group with comparable prognostic factors, treated only with Bussulfan) (Gutsch, 1982).
The efficacy of adjuvant treatment with Helixor in lymphoma and chronic leukemia was analyzed in a retrospective study with 700 patients (Stumpf et al., 2000): additional treatment with Viscum album resulted in increased median survival (11.4 years versus 8.6 years for patients without Viscum). In addition, patients reported improvement in quality of life. The theoretical objection on unfavourable impacts of the use of Viscum in malignant neoplasms of the lymphatic and hematopoietic system is refuted by this study .
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the second most common type of leukemia in the U.S. and Germany. The incidence increases with age and less than 10% of patients are children. The additional use of viscumTt strongly enhances the anti-tumor effect of cytarabine. In summary, the authors demonstrated that viscumTextract combining aqueous Viscum compounds and triterpenic acids induces apoptosis in HL-60 cells through intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways. The in vivo study showed a strong therapeutic effect for viscumT comparable to that of cytarabine. The potentiating effect of viscumTt and cytarabine provides strong evidence of combination with classical chemotherapy agents to achieve a high synergism of efficacy in cancer treatment :
Other potential uses for the Viscum album
Among the well-described and most active phytochemicals identified in the Viscum album are lectins and viscotoxins, which play a substantial role in the treatment of cancer because of its apoptotic and cytotoxic effects. Another group of compounds found in Viscum album are phenolic acids, phenylpropanoids and flavonoids with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which lower blood pressure. Other components of Viscum include triterpenes with cytotoxic and apoptotic and phytosterol, oligo and polysaccharide properties. Plant extracts, especially aqueous, are applied in traditional and official medicine, among others in the treatment of hypertension or arthritis. Potentially, it can also be used as a hepatoprotective or sedative medicine:
Extracts of Viscum album L and lectins isolated from Vicum have immunostimulant properties and a strong dose-dependent cytotoxic activity. They are often used in complementary cancer treatment, primarily to improve quality of life:
- Jung ML, Baudino S, Ribéreau-Gayon G, et al.: Characterization of cytotoxic proteins from mistletoe (Viscum album L.). Cancer Lett 51 (2): 103-8, 1990. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Kuttan G, Vasudevan DM, Kuttan R: Effect of a preparation from Viscum album on tumor development in vitro and in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 29 (1): 35-41, 1990. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Walzel H, Jonas L, Rosin T, et al.: Relationship between internalization kinetics and cytotoxicity of mistletoe lectin I to L1210 leukaemia cells. Folia Biol (Praha) 36 (3-4): 181-8, 1990. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Janssen O, Scheffler A, Kabelitz D: In vitro effects of mistletoe extracts and lectins mistletoe. Cytotoxicity towards tumor cells due to the induction of programmed cell death (apoptosis). Arzneimittelforschung 43 (11): 1221-7, 1993. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Jurin M, Zarković N, Hrzenjak M, et al.: Antitumorous and immunomodulatory effects of the Viscum album L. preparation Isorel.Oncology 50 (6): 393-8, 1993 Nov-Dec. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Schaller G, Urech K, Giannattasio M: Cytotoxicity of different viscotoxins and extracts from the European subspecies Viscum album L. Phytother Res 10 (6): 473-7, 1996.
- Gabius HJ, Darro F, Remmelink M, et al.: Evidence for stimulation of tumor proliferation in cell lines and histotypic cultures by clinically relevant low doses of the galactoside-binding mistletoe lectin, a component of proprietary extracts. Cancer Invest 19 (2): 114-26, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Maier G, Fiebig HH: Absence of tumor growth stimulation in a panel of 16 human tumor cell lines by mistletoe extracts in vitro. Anticancer Drugs 13 (4): 373-9, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Franz H: Mistletoe lectins and their A and B chains. Oncology 43 (Suppl 1): 23-34, 1986. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Mengs U, Göthel D, Leng-Peschlow E: Mistletoe extracts standardized to mistletoe lectins in oncology: review on current status of preclinical research. Anticancer Res 22 (3): 1399-407, 2002 May-Jun. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Podlech O, Harter PN, Mittelbronn M, et al.: Fermented mistletoe extract as a multimodal antitumor agent in gliomas. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012: 501796, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Schötterl S, Hübner M, Armento A, et al.: Viscumins functionally modulate cell motility-associated gene expression. Int J Oncol 50 (2): 684-696, 2017. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Hostanska K, Hajto T, Spagnoli GC, et al.: A plant lectin derived from Viscum album induces cytokine gene expression and protein production in cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Nat Immun 14 (5-6): 295-304, 1995. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Beuth J, Stoffel B, Ko HL, et al.: Immunomodulating ability of galactoside-specific lectin standardized and depleted mistletoe extract. Arzneimittelforschung 45 (11): 1240-2, 1995. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Lenartz D, Stoffel B, Menzel J, et al.: Immunoprotective activity of the galactoside-specific lectin from mistletoe after tumor destructive therapy in glioma patients. Anticancer Res 16 (6B): 3799-802, 1996 Nov-Dec. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Fischer S, Scheffler A, Kabelitz D: Oligoclonal in vitro response of CD4 T cells to vesicles of mistletoe extracts in mistletoe-treated cancer patients.Cancer Immunol Immunother 44 (3): 150-6, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Preisfeld A: Influence of aqueous mistletoe preparations on humoral immune parameters with emphasis on the cytotoxicity of human complement in breast cancer patients.Forsch Komplementarmed 4 (4): 224-8, 1997.
- Chernyshov VP, Omelchenko LI, Heusser P, et al.: Immunomodulatory actions of Viscum album (Iscador) in children with recurrent respiratory disease as a result of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.Complement Ther Med 5 (3): 141-6, 1997.
- Heiny BM, Albrecht V, Beuth J: Correlation of immune cell activities and beta-endorphin release in breast carcinoma patients treated with galactose-specific lectin standardized mistletoe extract.Anticancer Res 18 (1B): 583-6, 1998 Jan-Feb. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Stein GM, Schaller G, Pfüller U, et al.: Characterisation of granulocyte stimulation by thionins from European mistletoe and from wheat.Biochim Biophys Acta 1426 (1): 80-90, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Stein GM, Schaller G, Pfüller U, et al.: Thionins from Viscum album L: influence of the viscotoxins on the activation of granulocytes.Anticancer Res 19 (2A): 1037-42, 1999 Mar-Apr. [PUBMED Abstract]
- In: Murray MT: The Healing Power of Herbs. Roseville, Calif: Prima Publishing, 1995, pp 253-9.
- Lenartz D, Dott U, Menzel J, et al.: Survival of glioma patients after complementary treatment with galactoside-specific lectin from mistletoe.Anticancer Res 20 (3B): 2073-6, 2000 May-Jun. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Steuer-Vogt MK, Bonkowsky V, Ambrosch P, et al.: The effect of an adjuvant mistletoe treatment programme in resected head and neck cancer patients: a randomised controlled clinical trial.Eur J Cancer 37 (1): 23-31, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Goebell PJ, Otto T, Suhr J, et al.: Evaluation of an unconventional treatment modality with mistletoe lectin to prevent recurrence of superficial bladder cancer: a randomized phase II trial.J Urol 168 (1): 72-5, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Stauder H, Kreuser ED: Mistletoe extracts standardised in terms of mistletoe lectins (ML I) in oncology: current state of clinical research.Onkologie 25 (4): 374-80, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Saha C, Das M, Stephen-Victor E, et al.: Differential Effects of Viscum album Preparations on the Maturation and Activation of Human Dendritic Cells and CD4⁺ T Cell Responses.Molecules 21 (7): , 2016. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Hegde P, Maddur MS, Friboulet A, et al.: Viscum album exerts anti-inflammatory effect by selectively inhibiting cytokine-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2.PLoS One 6 (10): e26312, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Elluru SR, VAN Huyen JP, Delignat S, et al.: Antiangiogenic properties of viscum album extracts are associated with endothelial cytotoxicity.Anticancer Res 29 (8): 2945-50, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Elluru SR, Duong van Huyen JP, Delignat S, et al.: Induction of maturation and activation of human dendritic cells: a mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of Viscum album as complimentary therapy in cancer.BMC Cancer 8: 161, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Elluru S, Duong Van Huyen JP, Delignat S, et al.: Molecular mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory effects of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts Iscador.Arzneimittelforschung 56 (6A): 461-6, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Frohne D, Pfander HJ: Viscum album.In: Frohne D, Pfander HJ: Giftpflanzen: ein Handbuch für Apotheker, Ärzte, Toxikologen und Biologen. 3rd rev. Stuttgart, Germany: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, 1987, pp 179-80.
- Pusztai A, Grant G, Pfuller U, et al.: Nutritional and metabolic effects of mistletoe lectin ML-1 (type 2 RIP) in the rat.In: European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research: COST 98: Effects of Antinutrients on the Nutritional Value of Legume Diets. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission, Directorate-General XII, Science, Research and Development, 1998, pp 164-7.
- Pusztai A, Grant G, Gelencsér E, et al.: Effects of an orally administered mistletoe (type-2 RIP) lectin on growth, body composition, small intestinal structure, and insulin levels in young rats.J Nutr Biochem 9 (1): 31-6, 1998.
- Ewen SWB, Bardocz S, Grant G, et al.: The effects of PHA and mistletoe lectin binding to epithelium of rat and mouse gut.In: European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research: COST 98: Effects of Antinutrients on the Nutritional Value of Legume Diets. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission, Directorate-General XII, Science, Research and Development, 1998, pp 221-5.
- Pryme IF, Bardocz S, Grant G, et al.: The plant lectins PHA and ML-1 suppress the growth of a lymphosarcoma tumour in mice.In: European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research: COST 98: Effects of Antinutrients on the Nutritional Value of Legume Diets. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission, Directorate-General XII, Science, Research and Development, 1998, pp 215-20.
- Tubeuf KFv, Neckel G, Marzell H: Monographie der Mistel.Munchen, Berlin: R. Oldenbourg, 1923.
- Teuscher E: Viscum album.In: Hansel R, Keller K, Rimpler H, et al.: Hagers Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vol. 5th ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1994, pp 1160-83.
- Grossarth-Maticek R, Kiene H, Baumgartner SM, et al.: Use of Iscador, an extract of European mistletoe (Viscum album), in cancer treatment: prospective nonrandomized and randomized matched-pair studies nested within a cohort study.Altern Ther Health Med 7 (3): 57-66, 68-72, 74-6 passim, 2001 May-Jun. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Capernaros Z: The golden bough: the case for mistletoe.Eur J Herbal Med 1 (1):19-24, 1994.
- Schrader G, Apel K: Isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding viscotoxins of mistletoe (Viscum album).Eur J Biochem 198 (3): 549-53, 1991. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Gabius HJ, Gabius S, Joshi SS, et al.: From ill-defined extracts to the immunomodulatory lectin: will there be a reason for oncological application of mistletoe?Planta Med 60 (1): 2-7, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Samtleben R, Hajto T, Hostanska K, et al.: Mistletoe lectins as immunostimulants (chemistry, pharmacology and clinic).In: Wagner H, ed.: Immunomodulatory Agents from Plants. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser Verlag, 1999, pp 223-41.
- Abdullaev FI, de Mejia EG: Antitumor effect of plant lectins.Nat Toxins 5 (4): 157-63, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Kilpatrick DC: Mechanisms and assessment of lectin-mediated mitogenesis.Mol Biotechnol 11 (1): 55-65, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Horneber MA, Bueschel G, Huber R, et al.: Mistletoe therapy in oncology.Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD003297, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Khil LY, Kim W, Lyu S, et al.: Mechanisms involved in Korean mistletoe lectin-induced apoptosis of cancer cells.World J Gastroenterol 13 (20): 2811-8, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Kim MS, Lee J, Lee KM, et al.: Involvement of hydrogen peroxide in mistletoe lectin-II-induced apoptosis of myeloleukemic U937 cells.Life Sci 73 (10): 1231-43, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Choi SH, Lyu SY, Park WB: Mistletoe lectin induces apoptosis and telomerase inhibition in human A253 cancer cells through dephosphorylation of Akt.Arch Pharm Res 27 (1): 68-76, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Romagnoli S, Fogolari F, Catalano M, et al.: NMR solution structure of viscotoxin C1 from Viscum album species Coloratum ohwi: toward a structure-function analysis of viscotoxins.Biochemistry 42 (43): 12503-10, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Yoon TJ, Yoo YC, Kang TB, et al.: Antitumor activity of the Korean mistletoe lectin is attributed to activation of macrophages and NK cells.Arch Pharm Res 26 (10): 861-7, 2003. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Ribéreau-Gayon G, Jung ML, Di Scala D, et al.: Comparison of the effects of fermented and unfermented mistletoe preparations on cultured tumor cells.Oncology 43 (Suppl 1): 35-41, 1986. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Jäggy C, Musielski H, Urech K, et al.: Quantitative determination of lectins in mistletoe preparations.Arzneimittelforschung 45 (8): 905-9, 1995. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Zee-Cheng RK: Anticancer research on Loranthaceae plants.Drugs Future 22 (5): 519-30, 1997.
- Kaegi E: Unconventional therapies for cancer: 3. Iscador.Task Force on Alternative Therapies of the Canadian Breast Cancer Research Initiative. CMAJ 158 (9): 1157-9, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Stein G, Berg PA: Non-lectin component in a fermented extract from Viscum album L. grown on pines induces proliferation of lymphocytes from healthy and allergic individuals in vitro.Eur J Clin Pharmacol 47 (1): 33-8, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Kleijnen J, Knipschild P: Mistletoe treatment for cancer: review of controlled trials in humans.Phytomedicine 1: 255-60, 1994.
- Wagner H, Jordan E, Feil B: Studies on the standardization of mistletoe preparations.Oncology 43 (Suppl 1): 16-22, 1986. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Zarkovic N, Vukovic T, Loncaric I, et al.: An overview on anticancer activities of the Viscum album extract Isorel.Cancer Biother Radiopharm 16 (1): 55-62, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Mellor D: Mistletoe in homoeopathic cancer treatment.Prof Nurse 4 (12): 605-7, 1989. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Fellmer KE: A clinical trial of Iscador: follow-up treatment of irradiated genital carcinomata for the prevention of recurrences.Br Homeopath J 57: 43-7, 1968.
- Kjaer M: Mistletoe (Iscador) therapy in stage IV renal adenocarcinoma.A phase II study in patients with measurable lung metastases. Acta Oncol 28 (4): 489-94, 1989. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Schöffski P, Riggert S, Fumoleau P, et al.: Phase I trial of intravenous aviscumine (rViscumin) in patients with solid tumors: a study of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer New Drug Development Group.Ann Oncol 15 (12): 1816-24, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Matthes HF, Schad F, Buchwald D, et al.: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle Injection of Viscum album L. (mistletoe; Helixor M) in the therapy of primary inoperable pancreas cancer: a pilot study.[Abstract] Gastroenterology 128 (Suppl 2): A-T988, A433-A434, 2005.
- Matthes HF, Schad F, Schenk G: Viscum album in the therapy of primary inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).[Abstract] Gastroenterology 126 (Suppl 2): A-755, A101-A102, 2004.
- Schaefermeyer G, Schaefermeyer H: Treatment of pancreatic cancer with Viscum album (Iscador): a retrospective study of 292 patients 1986-1996.Complement Ther Med 6 (4): 172-7, 1998.
- Kleeberg UR, Brocker EB, Lejeune F, et al.: Adjuvant trial in melanoma patients comparing rlFN-alpha to rlFN-gamma to Iscador to a control group after curative resection of high risk primary (>=3mm) or regional lymphnode metastasis (EORTC 18871).[Abstract] Eur J Cancer 35 (Suppl 4): A-264, s82, 1999.
- Heiny BM, Albrecht V, Beuth J: Stabilization of quality of life with mistletoe lectin-1-standardized extract in advanced colorectal carcinoma.Onkologe 4 (Suppl 1): S35-9, 1998.
- Wetzel D, Schäfer M: Results of a randomised placebo-controlled multicentre study with PS76A2 (standardised mistletoe preparation) in patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy.[Abstract] Phytomedicine 7 (Suppl 2): A-SL-66, 2000.
- Cho JS, Na KJ, Lee Y, et al.: Chemical Pleurodesis Using Mistletoe Extraction (ABNOVAviscum(®) Injection) for Malignant Pleural Effusion.Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 22 (1): 20-6, 2016. [PUBMED Abstract].
- Catharina I.Delebinski, Sebastian Jaeger, Kristin Kemnitz-Hassanin, Arend von Stackelberg, Günter Henze, Holger N. Lode and Georg Seifert: Therapeutic Efficacy of Natural Compounds From Viscum Album l. In Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Blood 2010 116:3261.
- Catharina I. Delebinski, Kristin Kemnitz-Hassanin, Sebastian Jaeger, Holger N. Lode, Karl-Heinz Seeger, Guenter Henze and Georg Seifert: A NEW DEVELOPMENT of Triterpene Acids-CONTAINING Extracts FROM Viscum Album L. Displays Synergistic INDUCTION of Apoptosis In Childhood LEUKEMIA Blood 2011 118:4296.
- Srdic-Rajic T, et al.: Sensitization of K562 Leukemia Cells to Doxorubicin by the Viscum album Extract. Phytother Res. 2016.
- Schlodder D., Gardin N. E. Estudos clínicos com Helixor (Viscum album L.) para o tratamento do câncer. Arte Médica Ampliada Ano XXXI n.1 Outono 2011.
- Catharina I. Delebinski; Monika Twardziok; Susann Kleinsimon; Florian Hoff; Katharina Mulsow; Jana Rolff; Sebastian Jäger; Angelika Eggert; Georg Seifert: A Natural Combination Extract of Viscum album L. Containing Both Triterpene Acids and Lectins Is Highly Effective against AML In Vivo. August 5, 2015
- Nazaruk J, et al. Phytochemical profile and therapeutic potential of Viscum album L. Nat Prod Res. 2016.
- Kienle GS, et al. Safety of higher dosages of Viscum album L. in animals and humans–systematic review of immune changes and safety parameters. BMC Complement Med Altern. 2011.
Contact us and get to know how we can help you!